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We study the basic mechanisms guiding translational control of gene expression. Our work is centered on how translation initiation factors, ribosomal RNA modifications, and a novel set of 5’UTR elements provide a dynamic range of post-transcription regulation to how genes are expressed in time and space. We further exploit how deregulations in translational control lead to a wide spectrum of human diseases including cancer and fetal bone marrow failure to gain a more comprehensive understanding of translational control guiding normal cellular decisions, human disease, and metabolism. We are also designing a new generation of compounds that modulate the cellular proteome and act as cancer therapeutic agents. Our lab employs a convergence of biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches that enable us to ask these questions both in the test tube and in living organisms.